cardiothoracic

Can you know what is HEART?


The heart is an organ that circulates blood by acting as a pump. It can be a simple tube, like in spiders and annelid worms, or a more complex structure, like in mollusks, with one or more receiving chambers (atria) and the main pumping chamber (ventricle). The heart of a fish is a folded tube with three or four swollen areas that correspond to mammalian chambers. The heart of animals with lungs, such as amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, has evolved from a single pump to a double pump that circulates blood to the lungs and the whole body. The heart is a four-chambered double pump at the middle of the circulatory system in humans, other mammals, and birds. It lies on the diaphragm, the muscular partition between the chest and the abdominal cavity, in humans. It is located between the two lungs and slightly to the left of the heart, behind the breastbone.


Blood vessel:
A blood vessel is a blood vessel in the human or animal body that circulates blood. Arteries are the blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart, and arterioles are the small branches that branch out from them. Venules are very small branches that gather blood from different organs and sections and join to form veins, which return the blood to the heart. Capillaries are tiny thin-walled vessels that bind the arterioles and venules; nutrients and wastes are shared between the blood and body tissues through the capillaries. The endothelium is a thin layer of cells that lines the inner surface of every blood vessel. The endothelium is separated from the vessel’s tough exterior layers by the basal lamina, an extracellular matrix produced by surrounding epithelial cells. The endothelium is responsible for regulating the flow of substances into and out of the bloodstream, including nutrients and waste products. Angiogenesis is a mechanism in which tissues develop new blood vessels in response to certain conditions. Angiogenesis is necessary for the replacement of damaged tissue, but it also happens in abnormal circumstances, such as tumor growth and progression.

What is cardiology, exactly?


The term cardiology comes from the Greek terms “cardia,” which means “heart,” and “logy,” which means “study of.” Cardiology is a field of medicine that deals with heart problems and disorders, which may range from congenital abnormalities to acquired conditions like coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure. Cardiologists are physicians who specialize in cardiology and are responsible for the medical treatment of multiple heart diseases. Cardiac surgeons are doctors who specialize in treating heart problems by surgery.

Heart failure:
Because of the effectiveness of thrombolysis and primary angioplasty, the survival rate for myocardial infarction (MI) has improved dramatically in recent years. However, the resulting heart disease epidemic has become a significant public health problem. According to data from the United Kingdom, heart disease affects around 2% of the population. Furthermore, since chronic heart failure (CHF) has a worse prognosis, a patient admitted to the hospital with pulmonary edema has a worse prognosis than a patient with carcinoma in any organ other than the lung.

Congenital heart disease in adults:
Congenital heart and cardiovascular system defects affect about 1% of live births, with around half of these children requiring medical or surgical intervention during their childhood. A further 25% of people would need surgery in the first decade to sustain or boost their quality of life. Just ten percent of adolescents survive puberty without surgery; however, many of these ten percent lead normal lives for years before their abnormality is discovered.

Hypertension:
Since most patients are asymptomatic and care is preventative rather than palliative, hypertension is a difficult condition to handle. One of the problems facing clinicians working to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality caused by high blood pressure is persuading patients of the need for poorly tolerated medication in the face of good health (BP). Renal disorder, myocardial infarction (MI), and cerebrovascular accident are all severe consequences of untreated hypertension. However, many patients do not receive aggressive enough care.
What exactly does cardiology entail?
A cardiologist will conduct a physical examination and review the patient’s medical history. They can perform tests to check the person’s weight, pulse, lungs, blood pressure, and blood vessels.
Tests:
They can also perform or order the following tests,
• ECG or EKG
Ambulatory ECG
An exercise test or stress test
• Echocardiogram
Echocardiography
• Cardiac Catheterization
Nuclear cardiology
ECG or EKG:
ECG or EKG monitors the heart’s electrical activity.
Ambulatory ECG:
Ambulatory ECG is a form of ECG that tracks heart rhythms when a person is exercising or going about their daily activities. Small metal electrodes are adhered to the chest and wired to a Holter monitor, which monitors the heart rhythms.
An exercise test or stress test:
An exercise test, also known as a stress test, depicts the changes in heart rhythm that occur during rest and exercise. It assesses the heart’s capabilities and weaknesses.
Echocardiogram:
An echocardiogram is a form of ultrasound that shows the anatomy of the heart chambers and surrounding areas, as well as how well the heart is functioning.
Echocardiography:
The cardiac output of the heart, as measured by echocardiography, is a measure of how efficiently the heart pumps blood. It can detect pericarditis or inflammation around the heart. It can also detect systemic heart valve defects or infections.
Cardiac Catheterization:
A short tube in or near the heart collects data and can help alleviate a blockage during cardiac catheterization. It will take pictures and test the heart’s and electrical system’s functionality. Congenital cardiac, valvular, and coronary artery conditions can all be treated with catheter-based procedures and fluoroscopy.
Nuclear cardiology:
In nuclear cardiology, radioactive materials are used to research cardiovascular conditions and diseases in a non-invasive manner. Infarction imaging, single-photon-emission computed tomography, planar imaging, and myocardial perfusion imaging are all examples of this form of imaging.


What types of diagnostic tests should be carried out?
The physical examination does not reveal any new findings that support the atrial tachycardia diagnosis. The discovery of tachycardia (heart rate >100 beats per minute) with no reasonable physiologic explanation raises concern. Valsalva maneuvers, carotid sinus massage, and cold drinks, among others, may stop a tachycardia and indicate a diagnosis of supraventricular tachycardia, but they have no bearing on the precise diagnosis of atrial tachycardia. With gradual deceleration/acceleration of the heart rate, sinus tachycardia slows with vagal maneuvers. Hypotension, hypoxia, symptoms of inflammation/infection, pallor, abdominal distention, or tenderness, among other physical exam findings, may explain physiologic sinus tachycardia.

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